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Brain Tumor: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

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Brain Tumor:

Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis of Brain Tumours: Causes, Types,

An abnormal development of brain cells is known as a brain tumour. It could arise from brain tissue or from cancer cells that have migrated from other bodily areas. Malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous) brain tumours can both produce a variety of symptoms and health issues. We shall examine the causes, kinds, symptoms, diagnosis, course of therapy, and prognosis of brain tumours in this article.

I. Brain tumour causes:

Although the precise origins of brain tumours are frequently unclear, several risk factors have been found. These consist of:

Brain tumour risk is increased by a number of hereditary diseases, including von Hippel-Lindau disease, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and neurofibromatosis.

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Radiation Exposure:

Previous radiation exposure, whether through radiation therapy or medical procedures, can raise the chance of developing brain tumours.

Age and Gender:

Although brain tumours can develop at any age, some forms are more prevalent in particular age groups. For instance, glioblastomas are more common in adults while medulloblastomas are more common in youngsters. A gender preference is also present in some brain tumours.

Family history:

People who have a history of brain tumours in their families may be at a higher risk of developing them.

II. Different Types of Brain Tumours:

The origin, behaviour, and cell type of a brain tumour are used to categorise it. The most common varieties of brain tumours include:

Astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas are some of the subtypes of gliomas, which are brain tumours that arise from glial cells.


Meningiomas are tumours that grow in the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord and provide protection. They typically develop slowly and are benign.

Pituitary Tumours:

The pituitary gland, a little organ situated near the base of the brain, can develop tumours. They can alter several body processes and lead to hormone abnormalities.

malignant tumours that grow in the cerebellum and predominantly affect children are known as medulloblastomas.


Schwannomas develop from Schwann cells and frequently impact the nerves that control balance and hearing.


These tumours can disrupt eyesight and hormone production because they grow close to the pituitary gland.

III. Brain Tumour Symptoms:

Depending on the size, location, and pace of growth of the tumour, different symptoms may be present. Typical signs include:


In particular in the morning, persistent or increasing headaches may be a sign of a brain tumour.


When a tumour interferes with the regular electrical activity of the brain, seizures, which can be partial or generalised, can happen.

Cognitive and Behavioural Modifications:

Brain tumours may result in memory loss, attention deficit disorder, mood swings, and personality changes.

Problems with the motor and sensory systems might include abnormalities in vision or hearing as well as weakness, numbness, or paralysis in particular body areas.

Speech and Language Issues:

Brain tumours that damage the parts of the brain that process language can cause speech and language problems.

Constant nausea and vomiting can be brought on by a tumor’s increased pressure inside the skull.

IV. Brain Tumour Diagnosis:

A medical history evaluation, physical examination, and numerous diagnostic procedures are all used to determine the presence of a brain tumour. The diagnostic procedure might entail:

Neurological Examination:

A healthcare professional will look for any anomalies that might point to a brain tumour by evaluating the patient’s reflexes, coordination, muscular strength, sensory perception, and mental state.

Imaging examinations:

Imaging methods are essential for identifying and monitoring brain tumours. The best imaging technique is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which offers clear pictures of the brain and can assist pinpoint the position, dimensions, and features of the tumour. Computed tomography (CT) scans can also be used to determine whether a tumour is present and to determine whether there is any edoema or bleeding present.

A biopsy is a procedure in which a tiny sample of tumour tissue is removed for further analysis. The kind, grade, and presence of malignant cells in the tumour are all determined by this method. Surgical treatments or less invasive methods like stereotactic biopsy can be used to do biopsies.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis:

A lumbar puncture (also known as a spinal tap) may be necessary in some circumstances to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for examination. CSF examination can aid in the detection of tumour indicators, the assessment of the existence of malignant cells, and the evaluation of any aberrant protein or other chemical levels.

hereditary Testing:

If there is a possible hereditary susceptibility to brain tumours, genetic testing may be advised. It can assist in locating certain gene abnormalities or mutations that could affect the tumor’s onset or growth.

V. Brain Tumour Treatment:

The method used to treat brain tumours relies on a number of variables, including the kind, location, size, grade, and general health of the patient. The primary forms of care for brain tumours include:


When possible, surgical excision of the tumour is frequently the first line of therapy. The scope of the operation will vary depending on the tumor’s size, location, and proximity to important brain regions. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumour as much as possible while keeping the brain functioning.

High-energy beams are used in radiation treatment to target and kill cancer cells. It could be suggested as a primary course of therapy for tumours that are inoperable or as a postoperative measure to remove any leftover tumour cells. To give precise radiation dosages with the least amount of harm to healthy brain tissue, methods like stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated radiation treatment are used.


Chemotherapy uses medications to specifically target and destroy cancer cells. It can be given intravenously, orally, or directly into the cerebrospinal fluid. Chemotherapy can be beneficial for some forms of brain tumours and is frequently used in conjunction with other therapies like surgery or radiation therapy.

Using drugs that directly target genetic abnormalities or proteins found in tumour cells is known as “targeted therapy.” The goal of this strategy is to prevent the development and survival of cancer cells while causing the least amount of harm to healthy tissues. When particular genetic abnormalities are found, targeted treatment is frequently performed.


Immunotherapy uses the immune system of the body to identify and combat cancer cells. This method of therapy activates the immune system’s defence against the tumour, assisting in limiting its development and spread. Research into immunotherapy for the treatment of brain tumours is ongoing.

Supportive Care:

For people with brain tumours, supportive care focuses on symptom management and enhancing quality of life. Pain control, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and psychological support for the patient and their carers may all be included in this.

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